Practice Theory Questions

The following are examples of the types of questions relating to motorcycles you could expect to see when you take your theory test.  However, they are only examples and you must read and fully understand both the Jersey and UK Highway Codes before taking your Theory Test.

For other examples of Theory questions go to www.crash.je

1.  When riding, you find your shoulders obstruct your mirrors. To overcome this you should?

Mark one answer

          Extend the mirror arms

          Fit smaller mirrors

          Use your indicators earlier than normal

          Not use the mirrors

Answer

Extend the mirror arms

It’s essential that you have a clear view all around. Check the position of the mirrors before you move off.

2.   You are about to turn right. What should you do just before you turn?

Mark one answer

          Give the correct signal

          Take a ‘lifesaver’ glance over your shoulder

          Select the correct gear

          Get in position ready for the turn

Answer

Take a ‘lifesaver’ glance over your shoulder.

When you’re turning right plan your approach to the junction. Signal and select the correct gear in good time. Just before you turn give a ‘lifesaver’ glance to the rear for a final check behind and alongside.

3.  You see road signs showing a sharp ben ahead. What should you do?

Mark one answer

          Continue at the same speed

          Slow down as you go around the bend

          Slow down as you come out of the bend

          Slow down before the bend

Answer

Slow down before the bend.

Road signs might give you warning of a hazard ahead. Always look and plan well ahead. This will avoid the need for late, harsh braking. Your motorcycle should be upright and moving in a straight lime when you brake. This will ensure maximum control when dealing with the hazard.

4.  On a motorcycle you should only use a mobile telephone when?

Mark two answers

          You have a pillion passenger to help

          You have an automatic motorcycle

          You have a hands-free system fitted to your helmet

          You are travelling on a quiet side road

          You have parked in a safe place

Answers

You have a hands-free system fitted to your helmet

You have parked in a safe place

It’s important that you’re in full control of your machine at all times. If you need to use a hand-held phone you must stop at a safe place before you do so.

5.  When riding a motorcycle your normal road position should allow you to?

Mark two answers

          Let other vehicles overtake on the left

          Be seen by traffic ahead emerging from junctions

          Remain within ½ metre (1.5 feet) from the kerb

          Be seen in the mirrors of the vehicle in front

          Hold back vehicles wishing to overtake

Answers

Be seen by traffic ahead emerging from junctions

Be seen in the mirrors of the vehicle in front

Keep clear of the centre of the road. You might obstruct overtaking traffic, put yourself in danger from oncoming traffic and encourage other traffic to overtake on the left.

6.  A loose drive chain on a motorcycle could cause?

Mark one answer

          The front wheel to wobble

          The ignition to cut out

          The brakes to fail

          The rear wheel to lock

Answer

The rear wheel to lock

Drive chains are subject to wear and require frequent adjustment and lubrication. If the chain is worn or slack it can jump off the sprocket and lock the rear wheel.

7.  Which TWO are badly affected if the tyres are under-inflated?

Mark two answers

          Braking

          Gear Changing

          Parking

          Steering

Answers

Braking

Steering

Your tyres are your only contact with the road and therefore very important to your safety. Incorrect tyre pressures will affect steering and braking, so it’s very important that you take the time to attend to them. Correct tyre pressures can reduce the risk of skidding and will provide a more comfortable ride.

8.  The legal minimum depth of tread for a motorcycle is?

Mark one answer

          2.5mm

          4mm

          1mm

          1.6mm

Answer

1mm

The entire original tread should be continuous. Don’t ride a machine with worn tyres. Your tyres are your only contact with the road so it’s very important that you ensure they’re in good condition.

9.  Scooter riders should be especially careful when crossing tram lines because scooters have?

Mark one answer

          Small engines

          Wide panniers

          Automatic gear boxes

          Narrow tyres

Answer

Narrow tyres

Tram rails can affect steering and braking, especially when wet. If you ride a small motorcycle with narrow tyres you can be affected more than riders on larger machines which have wider tyres.

10.  Which of the following makes it easier for motorcyclists to be seen?

Mark three answers

          Using dipped headlights

          A tinted visor

          A White helmet

          A Grey helmet

          A fluorescent jacket

          Black leathers

Answers

Using dipped headlights

A White helmet

A fluorescent jacket

Many road accidents involving motorcyclists occur because another road user didn’t see them. Using some form of visibility aid will help others to see you. Be aware that you are vulnerable and ride defensively.

11.  Your motorcycle helmet has a small crack. You should?

Mark one answer

          Have it repaired by an expert

          Ride at low speeds only

          Ask the police to inspect it

          Get a new one before riding

Answer

Get a new one before riding

If you damage your motorcycle helmet, even slightly, buy a new one. The smallest damage can make a helmet unreliable. A little expense now may save your life later. Buy a white or brightly coloured helmet if possible. They’re much more easily seen by other road users.

12.  Your side stand is not raised fully when you start to ride. What could this do?

Mark one answer

          Alter the machine’s centre of gravity

          Catch on your feet

          Dig into the ground when you are cornering

          Cause the machine to steer badly

Answer

Dig into the ground when you are cornering

Make sure that your side stand’s fully up before you move off. If it isn’t up it could dig into the ground as you move away and might lead to an accident.

13.  A motorcyclist can only carry a pillion passenger when?

Mark three answers

          The rider has successfully completed CBT

          The rider holds a full licence for the category of machine

          The motorcycle is fitted with rear foot pegs

          The rider has a full car licence and is over 21

          There is a proper passenger seat fitted

          There is no sidecar fitted to the machine

Answers

The rider holds a full licence for the category of machine

The motorcycle is fitted with rear foot pegs

There is a proper passenger seat fitted

Before carrying a passenger on a motorcycle the rider must hold a full licence for the category being ridden and make sure that foot pegs and rear seat are fitted.

14.  Your overall stopping distance will be longer when riding?

Mark one answer

          At night

          In the fog

          With a passenger

          Up a hill

Answers

With a passenger

When carrying a passenger on a motorcycle the overall weight will be much more than when riding alone. This additional weight will make it harder for you to stop in an emergency.

15.  You are riding a motorcycle in good road conditions. The most effective way to use the brakes is to?

Mark one answer

          Apply both brakes with greater pressure on the rear

          Apply both brakes with equal pressure

          Apply the rear brake first and the front just before you stop

          Apply the front brake just before you apply the rear brake

Answer

Apply the front brake just before you apply the rear brake

This technique gives the best stopping power in good conditions the combined weight of the machine and rider is thrown forward and the front tyre is pressed more firmly on the road, giving a better grip.

16.  “Only a fool breaks the Two-Second Rule” refers to?

Mark one answer

          The time recommended when using the choke

          A separation distance riding in good conditions

          Restarting a stalled engine in busy traffic

          The time you should keep your foot down at a junction

Answer

A separation distance riding in good conditions

It is very important that you always leave a safe gap between yourself and any vehicle you’re following. In good conditions you need to leave at least one metre for every mile per hour of your speed or a two-second time interval.

17.  Road surface is very important to motorcyclists. Which FOUR of these are more likely to reduce stability of your machine?

Mark four answers

          Pot-holes

          Drain covers

          Concrete

          Oil patches

          Tarmac

          Loose gravel

Answers

Pot-holes

Drain covers

Oil patches

Loose gravel

Apart from the weather conditions, the road surface and any changes in it can affect the stability of your motorcycle. Be on the lookout for poor road surfaces.

18.  You are riding in heavy rain when your rear wheel skids as you accelerate. To get control again you must?

Mark one answer

          Change down to a lower gear

          Ease off the throttle

          Brake to reduce speed

          Put your feet down

Answer

Ease off the throttle

If you feel the back wheel beginning to skid as you pull away, ease off the throttle. This will give your rear tyre the chance to grip the road and stop the skid.

19.  Your indicators may be difficult to see in bright sunlight. What should you do?

Mark one answer

          Put your indicator on earlier

          Give an arm signal as well as using your indicator

          Touch the brakes several times to show the stop light

          Turn as quickly as you can

Answer

Give an arm signal as well as using your indicator

You should always ensure that other road users are aware of your intentions. If you feels your indicator might not be seen then give an arm signal as well.

20.  You are riding at night. To be seen more easily you should?

Mark two answers

          Ride with your headlight on dipped beam

          Wear reflective clothing

          Keep the motorcycle clean

          Stay well out to the right

          Wear fluorescent clothing

Answers

Ride with your headlight on dipped beam

Wear reflective clothing

Reflective clothing works by reflecting light from the headlights of other vehicles. This will make it easier for you to be seen. Fluorescent clothing, although effective during the day, won’t show up as well as reflective clothing at night.

21.  You have not worn suitable riding gear and get cold and wet when riding. Which TWO are likely effects?

Mark two answers

          You may lose concentration

          Your visor may freeze up

          You may slide off the seat

          Your reaction times may slow down

          Your helmet may loosen

Answers

You may lose concentration

Your reaction times may slow down

If you’re riding a motorcycle you should always ensure that you’re wearing suitable clothing. If you become cold and uncomfortable this could cause you to lose concentration.

22.  You should not ride too closely behind a lorry because?

Mark one answer

          You will breathe in the lorry’s exhaust fumes

          Wind from the lorry will slow you down

          Drivers behind you may not be able to see you

          It will reduce your view ahead

Answer

It will reduce your view ahead

If you’re following a large vehicle your view beyond it will be restricted. Drop back. This will help you to see more of the road ahead.

23.  You are riding in fast-flowing traffic. The vehicle behind is following too closely. You should?

Mark one answer

          Slow down gradually to increase the gap in front of you

          Slow down as quickly as possible by braking

          Accelerate to get away form the vehicle behind you

          Apply the brakes briefly to warn the driver behind

Answer

Slow down gradually to increase the gap in front of you

Vehicles travelling too close together are dangerous. Increase the safety margin by dropping back.

24.  You are riding along a main road with many side roads. Why should you be particularly careful?

Mark one answer

          Gusts of wind from the side roads may push you off course

          Drivers coming out from side roads may not see you

          The road will be more slippery where cars have been turning

          Drivers will be travelling slowly when they approach a junction

Answer

Drivers coming out from side roads may not see you

If you’re riding along a main road where there are many side roads be alert. Drivers approaching or emerging from side roads may not be able to see you. Be especially careful if there are a lot of parked vehicles. Always ride at a speed that will enable you to slow down and stop in good time. If you look well ahead and anticipate the actions of other road users you’ll avoid having to brake suddenly or harshly.

25.  You have stopped at a pelican crossing. A disabled person is crossing slowly in front of you. The lights have now turned to green. You should?

Mark two answers

          Edge forward slowly

          Ride in front of the person

          Ride behind the person

          Sound your horn

          Be patient

          Allow the person to cross

Answers

Be patient

Allow the person to cross

At a pelican crossing the green light means you may proceed as long as the crossing is clear. If someone hasn’t finished crossing always be patient and wait for them to step off the crossing before you move off.

26.  An injured motorcyclist is lying unconscious in the road. You should?

Mark one answer

          Remove the crash helmet

          Move the person off the road

          Seek medical assistance

          Remove the jacket

Answer

Seek medical assistance

In an injury situation the earlier proper medical attention is given the better. Either send someone to phone or phone for help yourself. Only move an injured person if further danger is threatened. Do not remove the crash helmet.

27.  Riders are more likely to have a serious accident if they?

Mark one answer

          Wear glasses or contact lenses

          Have not taken a theory test

          Have recently passed their test

          Are carrying a pillion passenger

Answer

Have recently passed their test

It takes time to experience different situations on the road. Develop safe habits and a responsible attitude from the start. This will help you to become a better rider.

28.  You are riding behind a long vehicle. There is a mini-roundabout ahead. The vehicle is signalling left, but positioned to the right. You should?

Mark one answer

          Sound your horn

          Overtake on the left

          Keep well back

          Flash your headlights

Answer

Keep well back

The long vehicle needs more room to make the left turn. Don’t overtake on the left. Staying well back will also give you a better view around the vehicle.

29.  When you are seated on a stationary motorcycle, your position should allow you to?

Mark one answer

          Just touch the ground with your toes

          Operate the centre stand

          Place both feet on the ground

          Reach the switches by stretching

Answer

Place both feet on the ground

When sitting astride a stationary motorcycle you should be able to place both feet on the ground for maximum control and stability.

30.  As a safety measure before starting your engine you should?

Mark two answers

          Engage first gear and apply the front brake

          Push the motorcycle forward to check the rear wheel turns freely

          Engage first gear and apply the rear brake

          Glance at the neutral light on your instrument panel

Answers

Push the motorcycle forward to check the rear wheel turns freely

Glance at the neutral light on your instrument panel

Before starting the engine you should ensure the motorcycle is in neutral. This can be done by moving the motorcycle to see if the rear wheel turns freely. When the ignition is turned on the neutral light should also come on.

31.  You should not ride with your clutch in for longer than necessary because it?

Mark one answer

          Increases wear on the gearbox

          Increases petrol consumption

          Reduces your control of the motorcycle

          Reduces the grip of the tyres

Answer

Reduces your control of the motorcycle

Coasting gives you less steering control, reduces the traction on the road surface and causes the machine to pick up speed.

If you’re travelling downhill your machine will gather speed quickly. The engine won’t be able to assist the braking.

32.  The safest way to brake is?

Mark one answer

          By using the rear brake first then the front

          When the machine is being turned or ridden through a bend

          By pulling in the clutch before using the front brake

          When the machine is upright and moving in a straight line

Answer

When the machine is upright and moving in a straight line

A motorcycle is most stable when it’s upright and moving in a straight line. This is the best time to brake and normally both brakes should be used with the front brake being applied just before the rear.

33.  You are riding in heavy rain. What clears the water between your tyres and the road surface to prevent aquaplaning?

Mark one answer

          Your speed

          Your mudguards

          Tread depth

          Harsh braking

Answer

Tread depth

When riding in the wet you rely on the tyres’ tread to allow the water to clear and let the tyres grip the road. As tread wears it cannot clear the water as quickly, so increasing the risk of aquaplaning.

34.  Motorcyclists are more at risk from other road users because they?

Mark one answer

          Are less experienced than other drivers

          Are more likely to break down

          Are always faster than other drivers

          Are more difficult to see than other drivers

Answer

Are more difficult to see than other drivers

A motorcyclist is one of the smallest motor vehicles on our roads. Being small they are not always easy to see. This makes them more at risk from other road users who may not see them, particularly at junctions.

35.  What can you do to improve your safety on the road as a motorcyclist?

Mark one answer

          Keep positioned close to the kerbs

          Remain well below the speed limits

          Anticipate the actions of others

          Stay just above the speed limits

Answer

Anticipate the actions of others

Always ride defensively. This means looking and planning ahead as well as anticipating the actions of other road users.

36.  Which FOUR types of road surface increase the risk of skidding for motorcyclists?

Mark four answers

          White lines

          Dry tarmac

          Tar banding

          Yellow lines

          Loose chippings

          Concrete

Answers

White lines

Tar banding

Yellow lines

Loose chippings

If you’re riding a motorcycle you must look at the road surface ahead. The stability of your machine will depend on it. Also look out for pot holes, drain covers (especially in the wet), oily surfaces, road markings, tram tracks, wet mud and leaves.

37.  You have to brake sharply and your machine starts to skid. You should?

Mark one answer

          Continue braking and select a low gear

          Apply the brakes harder for better grip

          Select neutral and use the front brake only

          Release the brakes and re-apply

Answer

Release the brakes and re-apply

If you skid as a result of too much braking you need to release the brakes to stop the skid and re-apply them progressively to stop.

38.  Which three of these can cause skidding?

Mark three answers

          Braking too gently

          Leaning too far over when cornering

          Staying upright when cornering

          Braking too hard

          Changing direction suddenly

Answer

Leaning too far over when cornering

Braking too hard

Changing direction suddenly

In order to keep control of your vehicle and prevent skidding you must plan well ahead to prevent harsh, late braking. Take the road and weather conditions into consideration and ride accordingly.

39.  It is very cold and the road looks wet. You cannot hear any road noise. You should?

Mark two answers

          Continue riding at the same speed

          Ride slower in as high a gear as possible

          Ride in as low a gear as possible

          Keep revving your engine

          Slow down as there may be black ice

Answers

Ride slower in as high a gear as possible

Slow down as there may be black ice

Rain freezing on roads as it falls is called black ice and isn’t clearly visible. The first indication that you might have of it is when the steering becomes very light. You need to keep your speed down and ride according to the weather conditions.

40.  You are approaching a road with a surface of loose chippings. What should you do?

Mark one answer

          Ride normally

          Speed up

          Slow down

          Stop

Answer

Slow down

You should ride at an appropriate speed, apply both front and rear brakes evenly, brake only when travelling in a straight line and your machine is upright.

Don’t make sudden changes in direction unless you are avoiding an accident.

The handling of your machine will be greatly affected by the road surface you’re riding on. Look at the road ahead and be alert if the road looks uneven or has loose chippings. Slow down in good time – braking harshly here will cause you to skid.

41.  You have to make a journey in fog. What are the TWO most important things you should do before you set out?

Mark two answers

          Fill up with fuel

          Make sure you have a warm drink with you

          Check that your lights are working

          Check the battery

          Make sure that your visor is clean

Answers

Check that your lights are working

Make sure that your visor is clean

If you’re riding a motorcycle keep your visor as clean as possible to give you a clear view of the road. It’s a good idea to carry a clean damp cloth in a polythene bag for this purpose. When the weather is foggy or misty ensure that your lights are clean and can be seen clearly by other road users.

42.  The best place to park your motorcycle is?

Mark one answer

          On soft tarmac

          On bumpy ground

          On grass

          On firm, level ground

Answer

On firm, level ground

Parking your machine on soft ground might cause the stand to sink and the bike fall over. The ground should also be even and level to ensure that the bike is stable. If possible, park your machine off the road.

43.  When riding in windy conditions, you should?

Mark one answer

          Stay close to large vehicles

          Keep your speed up

          Keep your speed down

          Keep close to the kerb

Answer

Keep your speed down

Strong winds can blow motorcycles off course and even across the road. In windy conditions you need to slow down, avoid riding on exposed roads, and watch for gaps in buildings and hedges where you may be affected by a sudden blast of wind.

44.  Your motorcycle is parked on a two way road. You should get on from the?

Mark one answer

          Right and apply the rear brake

          Left and leave the brakes alone

          Left and apply the front brake

          Right and leave the brakes alone

Answer

Left and apply the front brake

When you get onto a motorcycle you should get on from the left side to avoid putting yourself in danger form passing traffic. Apply the front brake to prevent the machine rolling either forwards or backwards.

45.  To gain basic skills in how to ride a motorcycle you should?

Mark one answer

          Practice off road in a public car park or in a quiet cul-de-sac

          Ride on the road on the first dry day

          Practice off-road with an approved training body

          Ride on the road as soon as possible

Answer

Practice off-road with an approved training body

All new motorcyclists must complete a course of basic training with an approved training body before going on the road. This training site has been approved by DVS as suitable for off-road training.

46.  To ride on a motorway your motorcycle must be over?

Mark one Answer

          100cc

          125cc

          250cc

          50cc

Answer

50cc

Traffic on motorways travels at high speeds. Vehicles need to be capable of keeping up with the flow of traffic. For this reason low-powered vehicles are prohibited.

47.  On a three lane motorway why should you normally ride in the left lane?

Mark one answer

          The left lane is for motorcycles only

          Motorcycles are not allowed in the far right lane

          The lanes on the right are for overtaking

          The left lane is only for slower vehicles

Answer

The lanes on the right are for overtaking

Change lane only if necessary. When you do change lane observe, signal and manoeuvre in good time. Always remember your ‘lifesaver’ check. This is a final, quick rearward glance before you manoeuvre.

48.  You are riding slowly in a town centre. Before turning left you should glance over your left shoulder to?

Mark one answer

          Look for traffic signs

          Check for pot holes

          Check for cyclists

          Help keep your balance

Answer

Check for cyclists

When riding slowly you must remember cyclists. They can travel quickly and fit through surprisingly narrow spaces. Before you turn left in slow moving traffic it’s important to check that a cyclist isn’t trying to overtake on your left.

49.  As a motorcyclist which TWO lanes must you not use?

Mark two answers

          Crawler lane

          Overtaking lane

          Acceleration lane

          Cycle lane

          Tram lane

Answers

Cycle lane

Tram lane

In some towns motorcycles are permitted to use bus lanes. Check the signs carefully.

50.  You are turning right at a large roundabout. Just before you leave the roundabout you should?

Mark one answer

          Put on your right indicator

          Take a ‘lifesaver’ glance over your right shoulder

          Cancel the left indicator

          Take a ‘lifesaver’ glance over your left shoulder

Answer

Take a ‘lifesaver’ glance over your left shoulder

You must be aware of what’s happening behind and alongside you. A final, quick rearward glance will give you the chance to react if it isn’t safe to make the manoeuvre.

51.  You are a learner motorcyclist. The law states that you can carry a passenger when?

Mark one answer

          The motorcycle is no larger than 125cc

          Your pillion passenger is a full licence holder

          You have passed your test for a full licence

          You have had three years experience of riding

Answer

You have passed your test for a full licence

When you are a learner motorcyclist you must comply with certain legal restrictions. The law states that you must display an integral L plate on the rear of your machine. Not carry pillion passengers and not use a motorway.

52.  In Jersey how long is a provisional licence valid for?

Mark one answer

          Six months

          One year

          Two years

          Three years

Answer

Six months

In Jersey a provisional motorcycle licence is valid for six months. You must attempt your theory and practical tests before your provisional licence expires. If you do not you will normally be refused renewal for your provisional licence for up to one year.

53.  You use the engine cut-out switch to?

Mark one answer

          Stop the engine in an emergency

          Stop the engine for short stops

          Save wear on the ignition switch

          Start the engine if you lose the key

Answer

Stop the engine in an emergency

Most motorcycles are fitted with an engine cut-out switch. This is designed to stop the engine in an emergency and so reduce the risk of fire.

54.  You are travelling on a motorway. A bag falls from your motorcycle. There are valuables in the bag. What should you do?

Mark one answer

          Go back carefully and collect the bag as quickly as possible

          Stop wherever you are and pick up the bag, but only when there is a safe gap

          Stop on the hard shoulder and use the emergency telephone to inform the police

          Stop on the hard shoulder and then retrieve the bag yourself

Answer

Stop on the hard shoulder and use the emergency telephone to inform the police

However important you think retrieving your property may be DON’T walk onto the motorway. Your bag might be creating a hazard but not as great a hazard as you would be.

55.  When may a learner motorcyclist carry a pillion passenger?

Mark one answer

          If the passenger holds a full licence

          Not at any time

          If the rider is undergoing training

          If the passenger is over 21

Answer

Not at any time

If you carry a pillion passenger the overall weight of riders and machine will be significantly increased compared to riding alone. You should have experience riding solo before carrying a passenger. You must have passed your theory and practical tests and hold a full licence.

56.  Pillion passengers should?

Mark one answer

          Give the rider directions

          Lean with the rider when going round bends and corners

          Check the road behind for the rider

          Give hand signals for the rider

Answer

Lean with the rider when going round bends and corners

Pillion passengers should also keep both feet on the pillion footrests provided.

57.  When carrying extra weight on a motorcycle, you may need to make adjustments to the?

Mark three answers

          Headlight

          Gears

          Suspension

          Tyres

          Footrests

Answers

Headlight, Suspension, Tyres

Extra weight can affect a motorcycles feel and balance. To help you can adjust the suspension and tyre pressures. You may find the headlight aim is also affected and this should be adjusted to compensate.

58.  You want to tow a trailer with your motorcycle. Which one applies?

Mark one answer

          The motorcycle should be attached to a sidecar.

          The trailer should weigh more than the motorcycle.

          The trailer should be fitted with brakes.

          The trailer should not be more than 1 metre (3 feet 3 inches) wide.

Answer

The trailer should not be more than 1 metre (3 feet 3 inches) wide

To tow a trailer behind a motorcycle you must have a full motorcycle licence, have a motorcycle with an engine larger than 125cc. Motorcycle trailers must not exceed 1 metre (3 feet 3 inches) wide.

59.  If a trailer swerves or snakes when you are towing it you should?

Mark one answer

          Ease off the throttle and reduce your speed

          Let go of the handlebars and let it correct itself

          Brake hard and hold the brake on

          Increase your speed as quickly as possible

Answer

Ease off the throttle and reduce your speed

Don’t be tempted to use the steering to stop swerving or snaking. This won’t help the situation. Ease off the throttle and reduce your speed.

60.  You have a side-car fitted to your motorcycle. What effect will it have?

Mark one answer

          Reduce stability.

          Make steering lighter.

          Increase stopping distance.

          Increase fuel economy.

Answer

Increase stopping distance.

If you want to fit a side-car to your motorcycle make sure that your machine is suitable to cope with the extra load. Make sure that the side-car is fixed correctly and properly aligned.

A side-car will affect the handling of your machine. Give yourself time to adjust to the different characteristics.

Question about theory?

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